Friday, May 10, 2013

Macam - Macam Teks Bahasa Inggris

Hallo sahabat blogger
Kali ini saya akan membagikan artikel tentang macam - macam teks bahasa inggris.
sehingga kita bisa mengetahui macam - macam teks bahasa inggris dan dapat menambah wawasan kita.


1. NARRATIVE
     Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story
Generic Structure Narrative:
Orientation ( who was involved, when and where was it happened)
Complication ( a problem arises and followed by other problems)
Resolution ( provide solution to the problem)
.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Chronologically arranged


Example :
Once upon a time, there was a little poor boy came into a little village. He was very hungry and weak. He knocked at every door and asked for some food, but nobody cared about him. Nobody wanted to help the little boy. Finally, a generous woman helped him. She gave him shelter and a meal. When the boy wanted to leave, this old woman gave him a “lesung”, a big wooden mortar for pounding rice. She reminded him, “please remember, if there is a flood you must save yourself. Use this “lesung” as a boat”. The “lesung” was happy and thanked the old woman.The little boy continued his journey. While he was passing through the village, he saw many people gathering on the field. The boy came closer and saw a stick stuck in the ground. People challenged each other to pull out that stick. Everybody tried, but nobody succeeded. “Can I try?” asked the little boy. The crowd laughed mockingly. The boy wanted to try his luck so he stepped forward and pulled out the stick. He could do it very easily. Everybody was dumbfounded. Suddenly, from the hole left by stick, water spouted out. It did not stop until it flooded the village. And no one was saved from the water except the little boy and the generous old woman who gave him shelter and meal. As she told him, he used the “lesung” as a boat and picked up the old woman. The whole village became a huge lake. It is now known as Rawa Pening Lake in Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia.


2. PROCEDURE TEXT
Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. In our daily life, we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. For example, early in the morning, you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. In making cups of tea, you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. That is why, you should understand what a procedure text is, how to make and use it. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal, (2) materials and (3) steps.
·         Generic Structure of procedure
1. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe)

2. Materials : Optional, not for all procedural texts
3. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal
·         language Features
1. The use of Simple Present Tense, often in an imperative form e.g. Add some sugar, prepare it,.

2. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text)

Example:
How to Make Tomato Soup

To make a bowl of tomato soup, you must prepare all ingredients below:
  • 4 large tomatoes
  • spices
  • 1 small onion
  • ½ teaspoon of salt
  • 8 cups of water
  • ¼ teaspoon of pepper
  • small clove garlic
  •  ¼ teaspoon of butter

Here are the steps to make a bowl of tomato soup:
  1. Cut tomatoes, onions, and garlic into small pieces.
  1. Fry them in a pan with butter for five minutes.
  1. Add water, spices, salt and pepper.
  1. Heat until the water boils.
  1. Turn down the heat and cover with lid. Cook gently for one hour.

3.      RECOUNT
  Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event.
Generic Structure of Recount:
Orientation ( who were involved, when and where was it happened).
Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order).
Re-orientation ( optional – closure of events).

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adjectives

Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE; whether Simple Past Tense, Simple Past Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time or place. Commonly narrative text is found in story book; myth, fable, folklore, etc while recount text is found in biography.
The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict, social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. In the contrary, we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure





Example :


Terrible Day

Last Sunday was a terrible day. My cousins and I were playing football infront of a house together to spent our time. First, it was really fun untill I kick the ball too strong, so the ball leaded into a window and I broke the window. When we want to run away, suddenly we all heard a loud voice. After that, the owner of the house came from the fence of the house, he was shouted on us. We were very afraid, but we don't know what to do. Then, one of my cousins told us to run, we all ran, and suddenly we heard a bark sound. Then we knew, that the owner of the house let his dog to chase us. And we were struggling to ran fast as we can. But, i fell down so the dog managed to catch me and bite my leg. It was really painful. Then the dog ran back to the house. My cousins took me to the doctor and told my parents. Finnaly the doctor said that i was exposed to rabies. Then i was hospitalized for one more week.


4. DESCRIPTIVE·
         Purpose: to describe a particular person, place or thing in detail.
     Generic Structure descriptive:
Identification (identify phenomenon to be described)
Description (describe parts, qualities, characteristics)
.
Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verb
3. Using adverb
4. Using special technical terms





Example :


Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.

Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.
The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.

Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.





5. NEWS ITEM 
·         Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important.         
     Generic structure news item:
News worthy event ( tells the event in a summary form)
Background events ( elaborate what happened, tell what caused the incident)
Sources ( comments by participants, witnesses, authorities and experts involved in the event)
.
Dominant Language Features:
1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.


Example :


Town ‘Contaminated

Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.
  6.  REPORT·      
           Purpose: to presents information about something, as it is.
Text organization report:
General classification (introduces the topic of the report/tells what phenomenon under discussion is.)
Description (tell the details of topic such as physical appearance, parts, qualities, habits/behaviour).

Dominant Language Feature
1. Introducing group or general aspect
2. Using conditional logical connection
3. Using Simple Present Tense


Example :
Birds.



Birds are interesting flying animals. They are vertebrates and warm blooded animals. They belong to aves class and they can be found all over the world.

Birds breath with their air pocket. Beside as respiration organ, air pocket also can enlarge or reduce their weight when flying or swimming.

There are many kinds of birds. Earth bird has special characteristic. They have different morphology according to their food and their habitat. Some of them eat seeds, pollen, fish or meat. There are some species that live in land and the others live in water. Land birds live on their nest.

Female birds have specific tasks. they lay eggs and feed their baby, Beside that they look for foods for their baby.



7. SPOOF
        Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers.         Generic structure spoof text:
Orientation (who were involved, when and where was happened).
Events ( tell what happened in a chronological order).
Twist (provide the funniest part of the story)
·
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Past Tense
2. Using action verb

3. Using adverb
4. Chronologically arranged


Example:



Private Conversation.

Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting.I did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking very loudly.I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. They did not pay any attention.In the end, I could not bear it. I turned around again. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “This is a private conversation”


8. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION 
           Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case.
      Generic Structure analytical exposition:
Thesis (usually includes a preview argument. It introduces topics and indicates the writer’s position)
Arguments (consists of a point and elaboration sequence. The number of points may vary, but each must be supported by discussion and evidence)
Reiteration (restates the position more forcefully in the light of the arguments presented)
·
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs

4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition


Example :
The Problem of Being Too Fat

Being too fat is commonly known as overweight or obesity. It is simply defined as too much body fat inside. Overweight potentially leads high risk of health problem.

Being too fat is recognized as a major factor for heart disease. Due to the overweight, the heart will work harder. It can lead to the heart attack. Furthermore, obesity potentially rises blood cholesterol and blood pressure. In addition, being too fat can change the amount of sugar in the blood. This will cause diabetes and other serous disease.

Beside all of that, being too fat is often avoided by many young women. They said that becoming too fat will bother their physical beauty appearance.

More serious studies are necessary to see the effect of obesity. However it is clear enough that overweight is not good enough for healthy life.



9. HORTATORY EXPOSITION 
           Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done.
      Generic structure hortatory exposition:
Thesis ( stating an issue of concern).
Arguments ( giving reasons for concern, leading recommendation).
Recommendation (stating what ought or ought not to happen).


Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition
Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. In simple word. Analytical is the answer of “How is/will” while hortatory is the answer of “How should”. Analytical exposition will be best to describe “How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question” How should student do for his exam?” will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince that the thing should be done.


Example :


Online Job 

Online jobs are selected in part-time employment for many, and some have taken more seriously. A growing number of people are willing to take a job online. Working online has its advantages if we manage efectively. Why not?

It offers flexibility and convenience that no other job can give. We can work from home with minimal investment and get a good income. The idea of adding weight to our pocket and makes life easier and comfortable is the most reassuring.

The reason behind this great opportunity is that every day there are new companies to join. Every day and every minute men are seeking information aboute verything under the sky of the Internet.

As we know, the Internet is the answer to every question, web sites need to update each section and also add reports on developments that have recently joined. Therefore, it is an expansive space for articles.

There are a number of jobs we can work online. Some of them which strongly recommeded are writing, marketing, stock trading, and online education. However we should be very careful because scamming opportunities are always there. 


10. EXPLANATION
       Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Generic structure explanation:
A general statement to position the reader.
A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs
Closing.

Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using action verbs
3. Using passive voice
4. Using noun phrase
5. Using adverbial phrase
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.


Example :

TSUNAMI
 
The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.

As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area.



11. DISCUSSION
           Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’).
Generic structure discussion:
Opening statement presenting the issue.
Arguments or evidence for different points of view ( pros and cons).
Concluding recommendation.

   
Dominant Language Features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be
3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner


Example :
HACKING



Do you know what a hacker is? Well, a hacker is a person who enjoys exploring the details of programmable systems on computers and they like to stretch the capability of the systems. And you know what, the activities they do in the computers are called ‘hacking’.

So, what’s the problem with ‘hacking and its hackers’? Well, the problem is whether ‘hacking and its hackers’ is legal or illegal? What I mean is that people in the world have many different views about hacking and the hackers. Some of them take sides, but many object.

To get back to what I was saying previously, let us see the positive points of a hacker, shall we? Although in most places breaking into computer systems is considered illegal, I believe that hackers don’t do anything illegal because they only want to know and try the systems. I dare to say that a hacker likes finding the strengths and the weaknesses of a computer system. They feel proud if they can find the weaknesses. So I don’t really see the crimes in this case. In addition, these hackers sometimes help the police catch the ‘white collar criminals’, such as bank robbers, money launderers, credit card forgers. For example, in 2000, the U.S. hackers caught some Singaporean hackers who made ‘Virus Love’ to break up the programs of the U.S. National Security system.

Nevertheless, those who object to the good points of a hacker say that hacking is a crime. The reason is that some hackers use their brilliant skills to break into banks and other vital institutions where they can get money, destroy information, and the worst thing is they can get secret information and sell it to another country. This is a treachery.

Take for example, in 1994, The U.S. government broke a conspiracy of computer hackers out of Majorca, Spain. These hackers were responsible for accessing and eliminating 190,000 telephone credit card numbers over computer bulletin boards in America and Europe. Seeing this fact, I don’t blame those who think negatively about hackers.

To put the whole thing in a nut shell, I personally think that hackers are not bad people with their brilliant skills. However, they could be bad because of money orientation to get the wealth. That’s just the point.





12. REVIEW 
      Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience.
     Generic structure review:
Orientation ( background information on the text)
Evaluation ( concluding statement : judgment, opinion, or recommendation. It can consist of more than one.
Interpretative Recount ( summary of an art works including characters and plot).
Evaluative summation: the last opinion consisting the appraisal or the punch line of the art works being criticized.


Dominant Language features:
1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor


Example :

Ratatouille

I have high expectations in quality films, especially for animation. Naturally, I’ve been disappointed by the majority of animated films to come out in recent years. Then now, Ratatouille has been so refreshing.
    
Ratatouille, directed by Brad Bird (The Incredibles, The Iron Giant) revolve around a rat named Remy, who loves good food. Sadly, being a rat, Remy’s fellow rodents lack Remy’s sophisticated a pallette. Seeing as his love of food isn’t appreciated by his kin, Remy practices his love of cooking in secret. Enter Linguini, a simple garbage boy employed by the restaurant of legendary chef (and Remy’s idol) Auguste Gusteau. However, Gusteau has been deceased for the last years, and is now run by Gusteau’s old and short-tempered sauce-chef. After a series of madcap events, we find Linguini and Remy teaming up. Linguini wants to be accepted, and Remy wants to cook. From there you experience a story that is so charming and true that it would be unkind of me to delve into it further.

While the story is amazingly sophisticated, witty and deep, we can always count on the director to deliver an amazingly beautiful world for the story to take place in. The Paris in Ratatouille is so rendered, that it often takes your breath away in places. The image of Remy seeing the city at night for the first time is simply a work of art. The lighting, water , and effects animation are so amazingly done, it put some live action cinematography to shame. While the visual achievement is grand, it never takes centre stage instead of the story. Regardless, this movie won’t disappoint. See this movie. You are obligated to if you like movies.

Sekian artikel saya. semoga bermanfaat bagi kita semua..:)

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